The power of video as a teaching tool, coupled with the versatility of the digital medium and the sharing capabilities of social networking software.
Examples of video sequences prepared by teaching staff in a wide range of trade based areas.
|Source||Creating Digital Video for teaching purposes, (a LearnScope 2004 Professional Development opportunity at Swinburne TAFE).|
|Use||These sequences have been designed and produced by a number of VET teaching staff in the trade based areas. They are designed to meet the needs of the particular curriculum.|
|Delivery||Can be easily delivered to the students via CD, email, a network drive, the web or integrated into a Learning Management System, such as WebCT and BlackBoard.|
|Customisation||Can require specialised skills, depending on the nature of the desired product. Simple video sequences can be rapidly created using a standard digital still camera, many of which can take short video sequences.
Requires: digital video camera or digital still camera that can take short video sequences, digital video editing software, such as Windows Movie Maker (PC) or i-Movie (Mac).
|Availability||Publically available website|
|URL||http://aquaculturepda.podomatic.com/entry/2007-05-05T16_33_35-07_00 with supporting documentation at http://aquaculturepda.wikispaces.com/podcast5|
|Use||These sequences have been designed and produced by a number of VET teaching staff in the trade-based areas. They are designed to meet the needs of the particular curriculum.|
|Delivery||A demonstration of why instructional videos of "how to" do tasks (e.g. how to tie knots, braid hair, use equipment) are beneficial to both learners and lecturers. Features how to film these videos using digital cameras, digital video cameras and spyglasses. Also demonstrates how to transfer the video footage onto a computer and edit using Windows Movie Maker.|
|Customisation||Digital Video can be produced using the same techniques used here or via the use of some easy-to-use software tools, such as Windows Movie Maker (PC) or i-Movie (Mac).
Requires: digital video or still camera, digital video editing software.
Fraynework Digital Video – Desert Healing
This video is an excellent resource for any group interested in issues of reconciliation and the healing of painful memories
|Source||Fraynework Video production|
|Use||Desert Healing tells the story of what took place when the people of the Kutjungka Region, South East Kimberley, gathered to recognise the deaths of their relatives in a massacre that occurred at Purrkuji (Sturt Creek Station) circa 1922. The community wanted to recognise this painful event which had burdened them for more than seventy years. National Sorry Day presented an opportune time for this to take place.|
|Delivery||Digital Video can be produced using the same techniques used here or via the use of some easy-to-use software tools, such as Windows Movie Maker (PC) or i-Movie (Mac).
Requires: digital video or still camera, digital video editing software.
|Availability||Publically available website|
Why include digital video?
Teachers have long recognised the value of video as a teaching and learning tool. Televisions and VCRs are commonplace in the classroom. Increasingly, video is being presented to the learners using digital technologies such as DVD, VCD, across a computer network, via the Web, iPods, Mobile Phones and Personal Digital Assistants.
Videos are good for demonstrations and illustrating concepts, ideas and examples. They can be supported by text, captions, diagrams, still images, descriptions, interviews and interactions.
You can use Video to support learners to think out and present workplace processes and work flows using video. When you create your our own videos as a group with learners as opposed to viewing 'others films', it enhances interactions and personalizes within the groups. Learners of varying age groups enjoy and sustain their enthusiasm for learning with computers by first learning about using digital cameras, working as a team and planning a short video using video footage or still images to develop a story that would have impact in their community or work place.
Videos can be used to highlight, freeze-frame or slow motion an event can be of incredible benefit e.g. playing a musical instrument or performing a work task or sequence.
Videos place emphasis on the visual, hence clear subtitles; on-screen labels or voice-overs can benefit the language learner - and ESL learners.
Videos can be stored on-line allowing learners (especially those who are slow learners) to re-view a topic several times. Videos can be shared in blogs, wikis, Learner Management Systems and websites using embedding code from video sharing websites.
In a VET context digital video is particularly good for describing and visualising processes, for example:
- laying a course of bricks
- sharpening a knife
- adjusting a hand-brake
- pruning a rosebush
- Erecting a roof truss.
Complex processes that would be very difficult to describe in written text can be elegantly conveyed with a short video sequence.
Integrating digital video
When using videos consider:
- There are so many videos available online, on so many different topics that it is often more effective use of your time to use ‘others videos’ than create your own video
- Videos are highly transferable i.e. you can embed them on web sites for your learners to view, download and play on your computer, embed them in PowerPoint, download and play on a mobile device (e.g. downloaded and played through a Video iPod attached to a data projector or TV)
Developing your own videos
Consider the purpose of the video and the needs of the target audience. Often a 'home-made' video, with a strong pedagogical focus is a much more effective teaching tool than something glossy that has been commercially produced.
The design steps for digital video usually include:
- storyboarding - a process of roughing out the subject matter of the clip, often in sketch form (storyboarding techniques)
- script development - to establish the narration (voice over) that provides the "teacher's voice" and/or dialogue between characters in the video
- digital video recording - using either a digital video camera or a digital still camera capable of recording short video sequences (recording techniques)
- editing the video sequences together, using digital video editing tools (editing techniques)
- determining the most appropriate way(s) to deliver the video to your learners and to integrate it into your delivery (delivery techniques).
It is also important in the design process to consider the learner's ability to access the video resources you produce:
- Digital video files can become large and take a VERY long time to download, particularly over a dialup connection. Learners wishing to access these resources from home may prefer that they be provided on CD to avoid downloads. Consider uploading to a video sharing site or using a compression tool such as QuickTime Pro to reduce the video size to enable them to be played over the web.
- Specialised software, (media players), may be required to view the video.
- Many computer classrooms are not equipped with speakers, so you may need to provide headphone sets.
- Learners who have either a visual or hearing impairment may be disadvantaged and require the same information provided to them via a different means.
Take a look at the at “How to do Task Videos” at http://aquaculturepda.podomatic.com/entry/2007-05-05T16_33_35-07_00
Embedding videos in a webpage, blog, wiki, LMS webpage etc.
The driving force for the rise of online video has been user-generated content hosted free on sites like YouTube, Google Video, JumpCut, and Revver. Embedding an existing online video from one of these sites into your blog, wiki, social networking site or Learner Management System requires a few steps: (for this example we have searched for video at YouTube)
- Search for the video for your site by using the search tools. Review the results and choose a video that fits your delivery context.
- Look on the video page for the embed code. If you just want the link, copy the link and put it into your blog post or links page in an LMS like you would any hyperlink.
- If you want to embed the video, select the embed code on the video page (in this example for the video at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DYJYCoY_lto - Timber Framing Program Winter 2007:
- Select the code and copy it ready to embed in your site/blog/wiki/LMS etc. Make sure you have the complete code.
- Login to your blog/wiki or LMS. Write a post, describing what you are about to play for video and any advance advice on what information you would like the learners to find or watch out for.
- Click on the Edit HTML tab. This will change the text on your screen to html, which allows you to paste the embed code from YouTube.
- Make sure there is at least one space before and after the embed code. The embed code should be it’s own paragraph. Save and you should see the video embedded on the page.
Find out more about embedding video into a wiki here.
Copyright issues are important if you use images or music or video you find on the internet. The media files you use in your story should be licensed or are shared with permission to re-use; this is the only way you can safely then share your new creation knowing it does not contain any copyrighted material. Finding media assets via Google is not satisfactory. For each media file you find, document the source by title and URL and find a person or organization to use to give credit.
You can also purchase images, graphics and video cheaply from a variety of sites that give you the right to distribute media files that contain the assets you have purchased.
One opportunity to use digital video for assessment is for the learners to record their own presentations or demonstrations.
Be considerate of the technical component of digital video production. It may be unreasonable to expect learners to master these skills as part of their delivery.
A simple way of facilitating this might be to provide learners with access to a digital still camera that records video sequences. The learners could then submit this file without having to develop any production skills.
Digital video production has a reputation for being difficult to learn and time consuming to produce. This need not be the case.
The advent of affordable digital cameras (digital video cameras and digital still cameras capable of recording short video clips), coupled with increasingly easy to use video editing software, has seen video production become much more accessible. Many home users are now using digital video technologies to edit and produce their own home movies.
Cameras can record video on mini DV tapes (requiring a capture or “recording” to be transferred to your computer via a connecting USB or firewire connection) or straight onto onboard hard drives (enabling quick transfer to your computer through a USB or firewire connection)
- Start small. Begin by producing very short targetted sequences.
- Initially, consider recording single sequences using a digital still camera capable of recording short video clips. The files produced can then be distributed without the need to learn any video editing techniques.
- Choose a video editing tool that matches your level of experience. There are many very sophisticated tools available, such as Adobe Premier, but they are often very difficult to learn to use. Windows Movie Maker (PC) or i-Movie (Mac) are a good starting point for beginners.
- Similar educational results can often be achieved by synchronising still images with audio. There are a number of tools that facilitate this, including Microsoft Powerpoint and Microsoft Photo Story .
- Good planning and organisational skills
- Experience with digital cameras
- Confidence to trial different software packages .
From the Framework
More resources from the Australian Flexible Learning Framework
- eTools and Tips – Video
Online video exploded through 2007. The driving force for the rise of online video has been user-generated content hosted free on sites like YouTube, Google Video, JumpCut , Revver and Teacher Tube. Online video sites enable users to upload and share their own and others videos on blogs, social networking profile, via email or instant message, peer to peer networks, wikis etc by using a simple code to embed the video. Most videos are in FLASH format.
This session will explore online video and video podcasting, tools for creating videos and how you can use video in e-learning. Watch the session at http://tinyurl.com/2dgov8 or read the comprehensive Video in e-Learning handout at: http://www.flexiblelearning.net.au/flx/webdav/site/flxsite/shared/Networks/2007documents/handout_videoinelearning_sue_waters.pdf
- Pump Video
The pumpvideo project brings learners and teachers from four states and territories together to make film and video productions. Collaboration and cross-fertilisation is essential to creative industries and pumpvideo will ensure this happens by using high speed bandwidth connections and virtual classrooms.
The project wiki is at http://pumpvideo.wikispaces.com/ and the project newsletter with learner video is at http://vetvirtual.external.utas.edu.au/pumpvideo/
- Movie Maker Toolbox Tutorial
Tutorials developed as part of the Inclusive E Learning project in 2005. Overview of using Movie Maker, video camera features and video capture techniques.
- Creating a human element for effective e-learning through video - How to guide for IDL delivery
Describes Effective teaching via video, Teaching by video in a cross-cultural context and Production of resources suitable for video delivery.
- Media on the Movie – Swinburne Case Study
In 2006, Swinburne trialled the use of Lectopia to provide a completely automated lecture recording and online distribution process. The aim was to record, stream and podcast 2 000 sessions and to trial different formats - video, audio and data projector capture. Access was provided via RSS feeds, streaming and downloadable files.
Tools and resources
There are a wide range of technologies and resources to assist in the production of digital video.
- Creating Digital Video clips for teaching purposes
Video is being presented to an audience using digital technologies, such as DVD, VCD, across a computer network or via the Web. Excellent "how to" resource for trainers considering the use of video.
- Windows Movie Maker (PC)
Windows Media Maker is part of the Windows XP and Vista operating system (OS)and is also available for download to older operating systems. It is designed for the home user and is relatively easy to use. It is well supported with wizards, tutorials and help files. http://www.microsoft.com/windowsxp/using/moviemaker/default.mspx
- i-Movie (Mac)
i-Movie is part of the Macintosh OSX operating system. It is a very elegant software package and is designed for both the home user and the more experienced video producer. Part of the i-Life software suite, it can also be used to author professional DVDs. http://www.apple.com/ilife/imovie/
- Microsoft Photo Story (for Windows XP)
Photo Story is free and very easy to use. It allows you to create a slideshow of still images, synchronised with an audio narration that you record with the application. You can configure the transitions between images and add background music if desired. It has a wizard that guides you through the production process.
CamStudio is a free program that you can download and install on your computer. CamStudio is used to create screencasts (a digital recording of a computer screen).
Check out this screencast by Leigh Blackall on how to use CamStudio - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=u1YurKvu43U.
Here is information from Sue Waters on how to use CamStudio - http://aquaculturepda.wikispaces.com/ScreenCast
- Flash Video
Flash is the format for most video sharing sites including You Tube. Flash video lets you put video on a web page in a format that almost anyone can view. This guide provides an introduction to Flash video, including information on how to create and publish Flash video. Using Flash has a learning curve but excellent results can be obtained. You will need the Flash application to make Flash videos.
- Instructional Videos
Instructional videos on "how to do" a task have been shown to be very beneficial for learners; because it means that they can do the skill while referring back to the video, pausing when necessary and watching as many times as required. Great tips from this WA Learnscope 2007 Wiki.
- Optimising Video for the Web and Adding Movies to Your Web Page
This excerpt is intended to be a starting point for understanding the basics of web video using Quick Time Pro for optimising video for streaming over the web and embedding videos into Webpages.
- Where To Find Free Music For Your Videos And Podcasts: A Mini-Guide